The Human Brain Project is a 10-years European project, which aims to map the human brain and create an ICT-based research infrastructure that can be used by researchers world-wide. More than 100 research institutions are involved in the project, and DTU’s role is to help achieving a better understanding of the brain’s interaction with the body and its surroundings, so that the brain is not only understood as a closed, abstract entity. We will discuss the body and brain relationship, and its importance on AI and robotics. This will be exemplified by a bio-mimetic modular control architecture based on a modular cerebellar learning concept, machine learning optimisation, and on traditional adaptive feedback control. This leads to benefit both robotics and brain science. The first thanks to a real-time control system that is capable of learning how to perform physical tasks and of adapting to changing conditions, and the second by providing new insights into the modular structure of the cerebellum, and its involvement in processing the sensory input for motor control tasks.